In this Python tutorial, we will learn how to **calculate a square root in python** by doing different examples using different methods.

There are multiple ways to find the square root of the given number in Python, which are shown below:

- Using the math module
- Using the exponent operator
- Using the pow function
- Using the cmath module
- Using the numpy module
- Using the decimal module
- Using the fractions module
- Using isqrt() function

## Square Root in Python

Python provides several built-in methods and libraries for calculating square roots, making it easy to perform calculations involving square roots in Python.

In Python, there are various ways to calculate the square root of a number, including using the **math** module, the exponent operator `**`

, the **pow()** function, etc.

### Method-1: Calculate square root in Python using the math module

The **math** module in Python provides a range of mathematical functions, including the **sqrt()** function, which can be used to calculate the square root of a number.

```
# import the math module
import math
# Assign the value of 16 to x
x=16
# Calculate the square root of x using math.sqrt()
y=math.sqrt(x)
#print the square of x
print(y)
```

The above code imports the **math** module and assigns the value of 16 to a variable **x**.

- It then calculates the square root of
**x**using**math.sqrt()**function and assigns the result to a variable**y**. - Finally, it prints the value of
**y**which is the square root of**x**.

`Output: 4.0`

### Method-2: Calculate square root in Python using the exponent operator

Python provides an exponent operator `**`

that can be used to raise a number to a power. By raising a number to the power of 0.5, we can effectively calculate its square root.

```
# Assign the value 16 to the variable x
x = 16
# Compute the square root of x using the exponent operator and assign it to variable y
y = x ** 0.5
# Print the value of y, which is the square root of x
print(y)
```

The above code first assigns the value **16 **to a variable **x**.

- Next, the code calculates the square root of
**x**using the exponent operator (`**`

) and assigns the result to a variable**y**. The exponent operator raises the value of**x**to the power of**0.5**, which is equivalent to taking the square root of**x.** - Finally, the code prints the value of
**y**using the**print()**function.

`Output: 4.0`

Read: Python Addition Examples

### Method-3: Calculate square root in Python using the pow function

The **pow()** function is similar to the exponent operator but takes two arguments: the base and the exponent. We can use the **pow()** function to calculate the square root of a number by passing it as the first argument and 0.5 as the second argument.

```
# Assign the value 16 to the variable x
x = 16
# Compute the square root of x using the pow() function and assign it to variable y
y = pow(x, 0.5)
# Print the value of y, which is the square root of x
print(y)
```

The above code first assigns the value **16** to a variable **x**.

- Next, the code calculates the square root of
**x**using the**pow()**function and assigns the result to a variable**y**. The**pow()**function takes two arguments: the first is the base (in this case,**x**), and the second is the exponent (in this case,**0.5**). - The
**pow()**function computes the value of the base raised to the power of the exponent. - Finally, the code prints the value of
**y**using the**print()**function.

`Output: 4.0`

### Method-4: Calculate square root in Python using the cmath module

The **cmath** module in Python provides functions for working with complex numbers. The **sqrt()** function in the **cmath** module can be used to calculate the square root of a negative number, returning a complex number.

```
# Import the cmath module, which provides support for complex numbers
import cmath
# Assign the value 64 to the variable x
x = 64
# Compute the square root of x using the sqrt() function from the cmath module and assign it to variable y
y = cmath.sqrt(x)
# Print the value of y, which is the square root of x
print(y)
```

The above code first imports the **cmath** module, which provides support for complex numbers in Python.

- Next, the code assigns the value
**64**to a variable**x**. - The code then uses the
**sqrt()**function from the**cmath**module to compute the square root of`x`

and assigns the result to a variable**y**. Since**x**is a positive real number,**y**will be a complex number with a real part equal to the square root of`x`

and an imaginary part equal to**0**. - Finally, the code prints the value of
**y**using the**print()**function.

`Output: (8+0j)`

Read: Python Comparison Operators

### Method-5: Calculate square root in Python using the numpy module

The **numpy** module is a popular library for scientific computing in Python. It provides many mathematical functions, including the **sqrt()** function, which can be used to calculate the square root of a number.

```
# Import the numpy module and alias it as np
import numpy as np
# Assign the value 16 to the variable x
x = 16
# Compute the square root of x using the sqrt() function from the numpy module
y = np.sqrt(x)
# Print the value of y, which is the square root of x
print(y)
```

The above code first imports the **numpy** module and aliases it as **np**.

- Next, the code assigns the value
**16**to a variable**x.** - The code then uses the
**sqrt()**function from the**numpy**module to compute the square root of`x`

and assigns the result to a variable**y**. Since**x**is a positive real number,**y**will be a real number with a value equal to the square root of**x**. - Finally, the code prints the value of
**y**using the**print()**function.

`Output: 4.0`

### Method-6: Calculate square root in Python using the decimal module

The **decimal** module in Python provides support for decimal floating-point arithmetic with arbitrary precision. We can use the **sqrt()** method from the **Decimal** class to calculate the square root of a number with specified precision.

```
# Import the Decimal and getcontext classes from the decimal module
from decimal import Decimal, getcontext
# Set the decimal precision to 50 digits
getcontext().prec = 50
# Create a Decimal object with the value 16 and assign it to the variable x
x = Decimal(16)
# Compute the square root of x using the sqrt() method from the Decimal class and assign it to the variable y
y = x.sqrt()
# Print the value of y, which is the square root of x as a Decimal object with 50 digits of precision
print(y)
```

The above code imports the **Decimal** and **getcontext** classes from the **decimal** module and sets the decimal precision to 50 digits using the **getcontext().prec** method.

- It then creates a
**Decimal**object with the value**16**and assigns it to the variable**x**. - The square root of
**x**is computed using the**sqrt()**method from the**Decimal**class and assigned to the variable**y**. - Finally, the value of
**y**is printed, which represents the square root of**x**as a**Decimal**object with 50 digits of precision.

`Output: 4`

### Method-7: Calculate square root in Python using the fractions module

The **fractions** module in Python provides support for rational numbers. We can use the `**`

operator with a fractional exponent to calculate the square root of a number as a fraction.

```
# Import the Fraction module from the fractions library
from fractions import Fraction
# Create a Fraction object with value 16 and assign it to the variable x
x = Fraction(16)
# Calculate the square root of x using a Fraction object with value 1/2, and assign it to variable y
y = x ** Fraction(1, 2)
# Print the value of y
print(y)
```

The above code imports the **Fraction** class from the **fractions** module.

- It creates a
**Fraction**object with a value of 16 and assigns it to the variable**x**. It then calculates the square root of**x**by raising**x**to the power of a**Fraction**object with a value of 1/2, and assigns the result to the variable**y.** - Finally, it prints the value of
**y**, which is the square root of**x**.

`Output: 4.0`

### Method-8: Calculate square root in Python using isqrt() function

The **isqrt() **function is a lesser-known method for calculating the integer square root of a positive integer in Python.

```
# Import the math module
import math
# Assign the integer value 64 to variable x
x = 64
# Use the isqrt() function from the math module to calculate the integer square root of x
y = math.isqrt(x)
# Print the value of y
print(y)
```

The above code imports the **math** module, which provides mathematical functions and constants. It then assigns the integer value 64 to the variable **x**.

- The code uses the
**isqrt()**function from the**math**module to calculate the integer square root of**x**, and assigns the result to the variable**y**. The integer square root of a non-negative integer`n`

is the largest integer**m**such that**m*m <= n**. - Finally, the code prints the value of
**y**, which is the integer square root of**x**.

`Output: 8`

## Conclusion

In this Python tutorial, we learned about 8 different methods for computing the square root in Python.

- Using the math module
- Using the exponent operator
- Using the pow function
- Using the cmath module
- Using the numpy module
- Using the decimal module
- using the fractions module
- Using isqrt() function

I am Bijay Kumar, a Microsoft MVP in SharePoint. Apart from SharePoint, I started working on Python, Machine learning, and artificial intelligence for the last 5 years. During this time I got expertise in various Python libraries also like Tkinter, Pandas, NumPy, Turtle, Django, Matplotlib, Tensorflow, Scipy, Scikit-Learn, etcâ€¦ for various clients in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, etc. Check out my profile.