How to create web form in Python Django

In this Python Django tutorial, I will explain working with Django forms.

As a Python Django developer, while working on a Django project I got a requirement of gathering information from the users. So, I have done the research and discovered that we can create web form in Python Django.

Here we will see:

  • What is a web form
  • Types of forms in Django
  • How Django forms work
  • Various form fields in Django
  • How to create web form in Python Django using the Form class
  • How to create web form in Python Django using ModelForm class
  • How to use various controls like textbox, drop-down, email, datepicker, and radio buttons in Django
  • How to upload files in Django form

At the end of this article, you can also download the code for both Django Forms using the Form class and ModelForm class.

Working with Django forms

Now, let us first understand the Django forms and learn step by step to create Django forms using the Form class and ModelForm class.

Web Form

A web form is a web page with many fields for the user to enter data or information.

Different fields, including text boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, number boxes, image boxes, date pickers, and others, are used in forms to collect various types of data.

Additionally, each field has a field label so that anyone viewing the form may understand what each field contains.

And the ability to submit data through POST requests makes forms another pretty secure way to share data with the server.

Read: Python Django vs Pyramid

Types of form in Django

The next step is to understand the various form types that Django offers after knowing web forms. So, there are two types of forms in Django as follows.

  • Simple Django forms: Simple forms are forms that are independent of the model. To create the form forms.Form class is used. It basically creates HTML forms and describes how it works and appears.
  • Django forms with model: Forms with the model are similar to simple forms, but it requires the model. To create the model form forms.ModelForm class is used.

Read: Python Django set timezone

How Django forms work

Generally, simple HTML is used to present these forms, and JavaScript and CSS can be used to style them.

Fortunately, the Django framework offers forms, that simplify the process and save the developer to start from zero when constructing a form.  

working with python django forms
Django Form Working

According to the diagram above, Django’s form works in the following way: 

  • When a user requests a form for the first time, the default form is shown.
  • The validity of the data is then verified.
  • If so, it executes the necessary actions, including saving the data and providing the outcome.
  • If not, the form is once more displayed with user-entered data and error notices.
  • Finally, it directs to another page after the form is successfully submitted.

Read: Python Django vs ReactJS

Various fields in the Django form

As discussed above web form is a web page with many fields, so we can say that the fields are the most important part of the form.

So, to have a look at the list of all the Form Field types used in Django.

from django import forms
dir(forms)
how to create web form in python django
Forms class fields

The following are the most frequently used fields of Django form.

Field Name Class HTML Input 
CharField class CharField(**kwargs) TextInput 
EmailField class EmailFoeld(**kwargs) EmailInput 
PasswordField class PasswordField(**kwargs) PasswordInput 
IntegerField class IntegerField(**kwargs) NumberInput 
DecimalField class DecimalField(**kwargs) NumberInput 
DateField class DateField(**kwargs) DateInput 
DateTimeField class DataTimeField(**kwargs) DateTimeInput 
BooleanField class BooleanField(**kwargs) CheckboxInput 
ChoiceField class ChoiceField(**kwargs) Select 
FileField class FileField(**kwargs) ClearableFileInput 
ImageField class ImageField(**kwargs) ClearableFileInput 

Read: How to Create model in Django

How to create web form in Python Django using the Form class

Set up Django Project

Firstly, we need to establish a project in Django using the below-given command. Here SurveyProject is the name of the project.

django-admin startproject SurveyProject

Now, within the Django project, create a Django app named SurveyApp using the command as follows.

python manage.py startapp SurveyApp

Open the settings.py file located in the project directory, and add SurveyApp to the INSTALLED_APP list.

create web form in python django
settings.py

A request in Django first comes to urls.py located inside the project directory and then goes to the matching URLs in urls.py inside the app directory. Add the below code in it.

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,include

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('',include('SurveyApp.urls')),
]

Read: Python Django MySQL CRUD

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Create Django Form using Form Class

Create the Django form that the SurveyApp application will use to collect user input. Add the following code to the forms.py file you create inside the app directory.

from django import forms

# Create your forms here.

CITY_CHOICES =(
    ("1", "New York"),
    ("2", "Washington"),
    ("3", "Los Angeles"),
    ("4", "Houston"),
    ("5", "Las Vegas"),
)

class CustomerForm(forms.Form):
    name = forms.CharField(max_length=50)
    address = forms.CharField(max_length=150)
    city = forms.ChoiceField(choices=CITY_CHOICES)
    pincode = forms.IntegerField()
    email = forms.EmailField()
    phone = forms.IntegerField()

Here, we create a form using forms.Form class named CustomerForm. And following are the fields that the form consists of.

  1. The name and address as Django CharFields. And there is a 50-character limit for name and a 150-character limit for address.
  2. The pincode and phone as Django IntegerFields.
  3. The email is Django EmailField which allows users to save email address.
  4. The city is Django ChoiceField and there is a choices option that may be used as options for a field and consists of iterables for items.
  5. And we define a tuple for this named CITY_CHOICES.

Read: Django contact form with class-based views

Render the form as a table in Django

Create a subdirectory called Templates in the main project directory to store the front end of a Django application.

Open the settings.py file, and update the DIRS to refer to the Templates folder’s location.

how to create web form in Python django
settings.py

To define the front end of the survey webpage create an HTML file named forms.html inside the Templates folder. And add the below-given code.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width={device-width}, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Document</title>
</head>

<body>
    <form method="POST" class="post-form">
        {% csrf_token %}
        <h1 align="center">Coustomre Survey</h1>
        <table>
        {{ form.as_table}}
        </table>
        <button type="submit" class="save btn btn-default">Submit</button>
    </form>
</body>

</html>
  • Firstly add the heading to the form using the HTML tag h1. Then call the form tag with the method POST, so the form is posted upon submission.
  • To prevent the form from cyber attacks and allow you to send the information securely, add the {% csrf_token %} within the form element.
  • Next, call the form and present it as a table by using the {{form.as_tabel}} tag. Pass this tag within the table tag as we render the form in the table.
  • Lastly, add a submit button to submit the form.

Read: Build a Django Contact Form with Email

Define View

To define the main logic for the form open the views.py file and add the code given below.

from django.shortcuts import render
from .forms import CustomerForm

# Create your views here.

def customer(request):
    if request.method == 'POST':
        form = CustomerForm(request.POST)
        if form.is_valid():
            Name = form.cleaned_data['name']
            Address = form.cleaned_data['address']
            City = form.cleaned_data['city']
            Pincode = form.cleaned_data['pincode']
            Email = form.cleaned_data['email']
            Phone = form.cleaned_data['phone']
            print('Name:', Name)
            print('Full Address:', Address, City, Pincode)	
            print('Email:', Email)
            print('Phone:', Phone)
    form = CustomerForm()
    return render(request, "forms.html", {'form':form})
  • First, import the CoustomerForm from the forms.py and create a view named customer.
  • Then call the if statement and check whether the request method is POST.
    • If yes, we pass CoustomerForm(request.POST) that binds the data to the form class, so we can do validation.
    • Now, call the is_valid method to validate the input entered by the user, and if validation success call the form cleaned_data[‘form field’] to validate the data.
    • And use the print() function to display the user result on the terminal.
  • If the request method is GET, the user is presented with a blank survey form using the render() function.

Now, we must map the view with the URL in order to call it, thus we must create a file called urls.py in the app directory. Include the code below in it.

from django.urls import path
from SurveyApp import views

urlpatterns = [
    path("", views.customer, name="customer"),   
]

Execute Django Application

To launch a development server type the below-given command in the terminal and run the server.

python manage.py runserver

It successfully opens the Customer Survey Form which looks like this.

python django working with forms
Customer Survey Form using Forms Class

Now, fill out this contact form and click on the Submit button as follows.

how to create web form using form class in python django
Survey Form using Forms Class

After clicking on submit, it will print the Name, Full Address, Email, and Phone on the terminal.

working with django form using Form class
Terminal Output

This is how you create a Django form using the Form class.

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Read: Python Django group by

How to create web form in Python Django using the ModelForm class

Setup Django Project

Django web application always has one project with multiple apps inside of it. So, we need to create a project first by using the below-given command.

django-admin startproject CareerClub

Now, it’s time to create an app inside the Django project. So, type the below-given command in the terminal.

python manage.py startapp Apply

To consider the app in our project we need to include our project name in the INSTALLED_APPS list as follows in the settings.py file located inside the project directory.

how to create form using the ModelForm class in Django
settings.py

Django automatically creates a urls.py file in the project directory. And to route our app, we need to include Apply app inside it as shown below.

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,include

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('',include('Apply.urls')),
]

Create Django Model

We received an empty SQLite database when we created the Django project. And to create a new table inside it, we must create a new model.

To create models in Django open the models.py file inside the app directory and add the below-given code.

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.

class Resume(models.Model):
    full_name = models.CharField(max_length=150)
    gender = models.CharField(max_length=10)
    date_of_birth = models.DateField()
    email = models.EmailField()
    current_address = models.CharField(max_length=300)
    city = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    state = models.CharField(max_length=20)
    resume = models.FileField(upload_to='resumes/')

    def __str__(self):
        return self.full_name

Here, we create a model class Resume which has the following fields.

  1. The full_name is Django CharFields. And there is a 150-character limit for this character field.
  2. The gender is Django CharFields. And there is a 10-character limit for this character field.
  3. The date_of_birth is Django DateFields. And it is used to collect the date of birth from the user.
  4. The email is Django EmailField which allows users to save email addresses.
  5. The cuurent_address is Django CharField. And there is a 300-character limit for this character field.
  6. The city and state are Django CharFields. And these fields have a max_length limit of 20.
  7. The resume is Django FileField used to upload the files. Additionally, it has a upload_to option that defines the location within the media where the file will be saved.

And to change the display name of the object in the Django model use the def __str__(self). It will render the item name as the full name as we return the self.full_name.

Register the model to the admin site so that the user can view it in the admin application. Open the admin.py file and add the below-given code.

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import Resume

# Register your models here.

admin.site.register(Resume)

Read: Union operation on models Django

Create Web Form in Python Django using ModelForms Class

If we’re building a database-driven app with Django forms and Django models. In that situation, the quality and amount of model fields and form fields would be the same for both the model and the form. 

Rather than writing duplicate code to first generate a form and then map it to the model in a view, we can directly use ModelForm.

To create a form add the following code to the forms.py file we created inside the app directory.

from django import forms
from .models import Resume

select_gender = (
    ("male", "Male"),
    ("female", "Female"),
    ("other", "Other"),
)

class DateInput(forms.DateInput):
    input_type = 'date'

select_city = (
    ("new york", "New York"),
    ("los angeles", "Los Angeles"),
    ("houston", "Houston"),
    ("chicago", "Chicago"),
    ("phoenix", "Phoenix"),
    ("austin", "Austin"),
    ("boston", "Boston"),
    ("las vegas", "Las Vegas"),
    ("columbia", "Columbia"),
    ("waco", "Waco"),
)

select_state = (
    ("new york", "New York"),
    ("california", "California"),
    ("iiiinois", "IIIinois"),
    ("texas", "Texas"),
    ("arizona", "Arizona"),
    ("massachusetts", "Massachusetts"),
    ("nevada", "Nevada"),
    ("south carolina", "South Carolina"),   
)


class ResumeForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = Resume
        fields = '__all__'
        widgets = {
            "gender": forms.RadioSelect(choices=select_gender),
            "date_of_birth": DateInput,
            "city": forms.Select(choices=select_city),
            "state": forms.Select(choices=select_state),
        }
  • Here, we create a form using forms.ModelForm class named ResumeForm. It has all the fields from the Resume model.
  • Additionally, we define the widgets attribute that sets gender as a radio button, date_of_birth as DatePicker, city, and state as a drop-down button.
  • The city and state are set as Select, a choices option is passed that are sequences used as options for a field. We define tuple select_city for the city field and select_state for the state field.
  • The gender is set as RadioSelect, a choices option is passed that are sequences used as options for a field. We define tuple select_gender for the gender field.

Setup for Django file upload

As we have used the FileField in the model to upload files. We have to set some settings to save the uploaded files.

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For this, open the settings.py file and add the below-given lines at the end of the file.

import os
MEDIA_URL = '/media/'
MEDIA_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'media')
  • MEDIA URL: The user can upload files from their browser using this URL.
  • MEDIA ROOT: This specifies the primary location of the file’s storage. It instructs Django to save all uploaded files in a folder called media.

Note: To save the submitted files, we must manually create the folder named media inside the main project directory.

Read: Django for loop

Render the form as a table in Django

In Django, the front end of the application is defined in Templates, so for this, create a subdirectory called Templates in the main project directory to store all of the project templates.

Open the settings.py file, and update the DIRS to refer to the Templates folder’s location.

build django form using modelform class
Setting Template Folder Location
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Job Application</title>
    <style>
        table {
            border: 8px outset;
            border-radius: 10px;
            border-spacing: 10px;
            padding: 20px;
            margin-left: auto;
            margin-right: auto;
        }
    </style>
</head>

<body>
    <h1 align="center">Job Application</h1>
    <hr>
    <h3 align="center">Please complete the form below to apply for a position with us.</h3>
    <hr>
    <br>
    <form method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
        {% csrf_token %}
        <table>
            {{form.as_table}}
        </table>
        <br><br>
        <div style="text-align:center">
            <input type="submit" />
        </div>
    </form>
</body>

</html>
  • First, we set the style of the table in the head tag.
  • The heading for the form is then added inside the body tag using the HTML tags h1 and h4.
  • The form will then be posted once it has been submitted by calling the form tag with the POST method.
  • Add the enctype =”multipart/form-data” in the form tag otherwise, the form won’t work.
  • Add the csrf_token within the form element to shield the form from cyberattacks and enable you to transmit the data securely.
  • Next, use the form.as_table tag to render the form as a table.
  • Lastly, add a submit button to submit the form.

Define View

To define the main logic for the job application form open the views.py file and add the code given below.

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from .forms import ResumeForm

# Create your views here.

def jobapply(request):
    if request.method == 'POST':
        form = ResumeForm(request.POST,request.FILES)
        if form.is_valid():
            form.save()
            return HttpResponse('Your Job Application is successfully submitted')
    else:
        form = ResumeForm()
        context = {
            'form':form,
        }
    return render(request, 'apply_form.html', context)
  • First, import the ResumeForm from the forms.py and create a view named jobapply.
  • Then, call the if statement and check whether the request method is POST.
    • If yes, simply add a request.FILES along with the request.POST to the form method.
    • Call the is_valid method to validate the input entered by the user, and if validation success calls the save() to save the data entered by users and return the HttpResponse.
  • If the request method is GET, the user is presented with a blank job application form using the render() function.

Now, we must map the view with the URL in order to call it, thus we must create a file called urls.py in the app directory. Include the code below in it.

from django.urls import path
from . import views

urlpatterns = [
path('apply', views.jobapply, name='apply'),
]

Also, check: Get URL parameters in Django

Execute Django Application

To make a migration file that includes code for a model’s tabular schema type the below command in the terminal.

python manage.py makemigrations

To builds tables in accordance with the migration file’s schema execute the below command.

python manage.py migrate

To launch a development server type the below-given command in the terminal.

python manage.py runserver

By expanding the URL as shown below, we can access the job application form.

127.1.1.0/apply

It successfully opens the Django contact form that we create using the ModelForm which looks like this.

python django create web form
Job Application form using ModelForm class

Now, fill out the form and click the submit button as shown below.

python django form using modelform class
Job Application Form

On successful submission of the form, we’ll get the HttpResponse as shown below.

build python django form using modelform class
Success Message

Read: Compare two integers in Python Django

View submitted data from the Django admin interface

It will also save the data in the database. So, create a superuser and open the admin application and view it.

how to create form using the model form class in python django
Admin Site

This is how you create a Form in Django using ModelForm class.

Download Django web form complete code

Conclusion

With this, we have successfully created a Django web form using the Form class and ModelForm class. Additionally, we have learned to add various controls like textbox, email, drop-down, datepicker, and radio buttons to the form.

We have also learned to upload the file in Django form and view the submitted form data on the admin interface.

Additionally, we have also covered the following topics.

  • What is a web form
  • Types of forms in Django
  • How Django forms work
  • Various form fields in Django
  • How to create web form in Python Django using the Form class
  • How to create web form in Python Django using ModelForm class
  • How to use various controls like textbox, drop-down, email, datepicker, and radio buttons in Django
  • How to upload files in Django form

You may also like to read the following Python Django tutorials.